The Context for
Brewer’s "Worthy Memorials"
Brewer’s imposing etchings of cathedrals, city views, and medieval town halls in Belgium and Northern France implicitly warned of threats to their existence and reprimanded society for their destruction, but how well did they fit in the flow with other artistic currents during the First World War?
In a 2014 article in The Guardian, Margaret MacMillan, author of The War That Ended Peace, wondered if artists like Picasso and Braque and writers like Henry James and Marcel Proust “somehow felt a catastrophe was bearing down on them and their societies.... For some,” she wrote, “war and violence were not things to be feared but welcomed, as ways of speeding up the destruction of the old and the outworn. War, said the Italian futurist Marinetti, ‘is the sole hygiene of the world.’ Rupert Brooke longed, he told his friends, for ‘some sort of upheaval.’”
No artist with a love of historical architecture like Brewer could entertain sentiments like these. Nor would his patrons warm to the idea of tearing down what the ages had passed on to us. (Brewer is not known even to have done any etching of the many well-visited medieval ruins in Britain.) If other young artists might have welcomed a violent new beginning, a member of the Brewer family—which included the editor of the correspondence of Henry VIII, an architectural historian, a church organist, and the author of Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable—would have anticipated the onset of a destructive war with deep trepidation.
The German expressionist Ludwig Meidner was on a different path. At 17 he had been apprenticed to a stonemason, and his early scenes of Berlin buildings exhibited a workmanlike firmity, not too unlike an early Brewer drawing in The Graphic. But in 1912, perhaps influenced by the dystopian poetry of his colleague Georg Heym, he began a new series of "apocalyptic landscapes" characterized by screaming comets, twisted architectural forms, frenzy, and disruption. In his book Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War, Alan Kramer thought Meidner’s visions “by no means expressed enthusiastic anticipation of war, rather dread and horror.”
Sophie Goetzmann, however, sounded a cautionary note. “Far from being prophetic,” she wrote in a chapter of Wounded Cities, The Representation of Urban Disasters, “these visions of disaster and destruction were primarily the symptom of intergenerational conflict, and an aspiration to provoke radical change in the world order.”
Meidner’s paintings and drawings from this period were exhibited together as The Apocalyptic Landscapes of Ludwig Meidner in 1989 at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The excellent catalog text by Carol S. Eliel traces the influences on Meidner’s evolution as an artist, including the work of earlier German expressionists and, in addition to the poetry of Heym, the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche (whose “O Zarathustra, spit on this city of shopkeepers and turn back” would have had little appeal for an essentially bourgeois artist like Brewer). As pictured in the catalog, most of Meidner’s paintings and drawings seem to be a more generalized expression of post-fin-de-siecle angst, a vision of social and architectural upheaval rather than a depiction of world war, even the paintings done after the war had begun. Indeed, in a June 1914 article in Kunst and Künstler, Meidner talks about “a bombardment of light beams whizzing between the rows of windows, between vehicles of every kind, and a thousand bobbing balls, scraps of people, billboards, and roaring shapeless masses of color” —without reference to any impending military conflict.
Writing his post-war autobiographical Mein Leben, however, Meidner linked his pre-war art to the “great universal storm...already baring its teeth.” While Goetzmann found nothing he wrote before the war to corroborate such an interpretation, those looking for a military cause for all this teeming terror and devastation can point to Meidner’s 1913 “Bombardement einer Stadt” (Shelling of a City). This drawing shows a city flashing explosive lights under cannon fire and is certainly consistent in style and subject with his 1914 “Schlacht” (Battle). Meidner was at least including the possibility of armaments in his fevered, apocalyptic visions.
During the war, artists like Paul Nash, Otto Dix, David Bomberg, CWR Nevinson, Henry Tonks, William Orpen, and many others depicted scenes of grief, conflict, and ruin that made important contributions to public awareness and understanding, even as Brewer’s brother Henry did in his paintings of the bombing of London during WWII. In 1917, Brewer was called up to serve as a draftsman in the newly formed RAF, but with the help of family members, the production of his war etchings continued. At the same time, some American artists enlisted their talent as captains in the Army Corps of Engineers and were given free rein to capture the essence of war. “They could go anywhere they wanted to go,” according to Alfred Cornebise, author of Art from the Trenches: America’s Uniformed Artists in World War I. While the results included scenes of soldier life and combat as well as destroyed churches and devastated fields, the artists stopped short of showing any dead bodies like those piled up in the foreground of Meidner’s 1918 postcard illustration "Schlachtfeld" (Battlefield).
A telling point of comparison with Brewer’s art can be made with the work of American artist George Bellows. In 1918, Bellows created a series of evocative tableaux—five large oils and multiple lithographic prints and drawings—titled “WAR” that documented the German invasion of Belgium in 1914. His wrenching execution scene from Dinant—a painting with much the same emotional power as Picasso’s "Guernica"—stands in stark relief to Brewer’s serene memento of the interior of Dinant’s Church of Notre Dame, shown as it existed before the German offensive blasted its way through Dinant on the way to France. While Brewer's etching is reverent and soothing, its impact was not inconsiderable. Said to have been done before the war began, it was published in 1915 as the world was still reeling in disbelief after reading reports of the invasion. When it was reprinted at the end of that year in The Outlook together with an etching of the Cloth Hall in Ypres, the influential political magazine described them as “worthy memorials of magnificent edifices which are now partly or wholly in ruins.” In contrast, after the war, art critic Virgil Barker wrote that the paintings in the Bellows series were as "ill-judged in their appeal to the passion of hatred as anything produced in America’s most hysterical war years...."
During the war, Brewer published seven etchings of Rheims Cathedral, whose destruction was an architectural rallying cry for supporters of the Allies. Each of these etchings is filled with a sense of monumental loss like that expressed in "The Goblin at Rheims," a sonnet by American poet Hortense Flexner:
From his high arch, nestled in stony nook,
He used to leer across the twilight space
Of the great aisle — the goblin with the book,
Bent in huge hands. Half lost in ivoried lace
Of shadow carving, scrolls and thick-twined gorse,
His savage face was sly with some dark jest;
I thought it strange he lived so cruel, coarse,
Above five centuries’ drifted prayer and rest.
To-day I knew him by his evil sneer,
In shattered rose-glass, fretwork, fallen towers;
And wondered if he told his maker’s fear
Of this far shame. But no — who dreamed these flowers,
Modeled of light, this laughing cherub’s wing,
How should he think men’s hands might do this thing?
This same unanswerable question is asked by Brewer’s subtly poignant and silently reproachful WWI etchings. In this sense, they may be appreciated as lacunae of ruin, all the more powerful in their urgency because of their restraint. As Alan Kramer said in a letter to the author, “The etchings are remarkable because they are understated, yet they would resonate strongly for viewers at the time with the knowledge of contemporary events.”
"Bouteille, clarinet, violon, journal, verre" by Pablo Picasso, 1913,
At top, Ludwig Meidner's 1910 "Bau der Untergrunbahn" (Subway Construction in Berlin). Above, J. Alphege Brewer"s "Charing Cross As It Looks Today," published in The Graphic, August 13, 1910. Note that where Meidner places a derrick, Brewer centers Nelson's Column.
Above, Ludwig Meidner's 1912 "Apokalyptische Landschaft." Below, his 1913 "Bombardement einer Stadt."
At left, Brewer's 1915 "The Church of Notre Dame, Dinant-on-the-Meuse, Belgium." Below, George Bellows' 1918 "Massacre at Dinant."
Below, J. Alphege Brewer's "The West Front of Rheims Cathedral." Because it was published in 1914 without a US copyright, the image was reproduced by many printers and sold widely throughout the United States.